Tag: EU


Brexit 10 Years On. What future for the EU and the UK?

It seems fair to say that the new decade did not begin at its best. The finalisation of Brexit took place on 31st January 2020 and was shortly followed by the worldwide outbreak of Covid-19. Considering the complexity of global politics, ten years are likely to be gone in the blink of an eye: long-term changes do not usually happen in such a short time. But then, again: in the space of four years the United Kingdom cancelled forty-seven years of European membership, so who is to say?

The European Union’s delegation in London stated that: “The global health emergency triggered by Covid-19 has shown us that the challenges which we face are global and know no borders”. For this reason, we have tried to imagine what could happen after Brexit. What will be the relationship between the UK and the EU in ten years? We have asked this question to political experts, representatives of institutions, British citizens and residents. In order to answer this question it is necessary to make some considerations on the future of the EU as we know it.

Although no one has the power to predict the future, looking at the past may help. The UK’s decision to leave the EU did not come out of nowhere and can be linked to the fact that British Europeanism never really took off. To start, the rhetoric of British exceptionalism is deeply rooted in British culture. Every identity conceives of itself as opposed to someone else and Britons have usually found their counterparts in Europeans.

Secondly, the United States has always been an attractive pole for the UK. The ‘special relationship’ has made the English Channel seem metaphorically wider than the Atlantic Ocean, and it is well known that president Donald Trump has endorsed Brexit. “People have very much taken for granted many of the everyday benefits of being a member state” told us Chris, a British native citizen with a keen interest in the politics of his country, “[even though] the EU has been responsible for crippling [some member] countries’ economies”. According to these premises, the UK’s departure could have been foreseen.


Photo by Agnese Stracquadanio, 2020, All Rights Reserved


Historian and former professor of History of the European Integration at the University of Milan Lucio Valent offered his views on some of the likely scenarios for the next decade. “The feeling of belonging to the EU still differs from member to member and the process of the EU losing its appeal started way before the Coronavirus outbreak” he stated. As a historian, it is his job to look at the past, rather than at the future. However, his knowledge of past events may provide a sort of reading key for the future. “Since the financial crisis of 2008, public opinion has progressively shown a preference for national sovereignty over European authority, to the point of questioning the benefits of European membership” he said. “But this is not something new” – Professor Valent added, “the same happened in 1929 when the economic crash was followed by the closure of national borders and the implementation of autocratic policies”.

How the UK will shape its relationship with the EU depends on its internal growth” Valent said. This is because the performance of the economy always has a political impact. “The one-of-a-kind European market cannot be easily replaced. For this reason, the UK is striving to maintain a close economic relationship with the EU”. According to Professor Valent: “Economic consequences that may occur after the transition period could trigger a new wave of Europeanism in the UK”. This is what Chris hopes too. “By 2030 in one way or another we will have ended up drawing the conclusion that it is better to be part of the EU” he maintains. Like Chris, Professor Valent is optimistic about the role that many years of communality with European countries will play in future policy-making in Britain. The EU delegation in the UK does not exclude the possibility of future co-operation: “We hope that on the basis of shared history, shared values and geographical proximity, there is scope for the EU and the UK to work together on the global stage” the delegation stated. However, as Professor Valent pointed out: “if both the common market and the monetary union still exist in ten years, the international weight of the UK could be questioned”. This is a scenario which would scare hard-line Brexiteers too.

Another aspect to take into consideration is that the departure from Europe could trigger not only a new wave of Europeanism, but some internal discontent too. In this regard, Professor Valent reminds us that in recent years a number of European nations have seen regional demands for independence gain momentum, along with the hope of support from the EU in turn. For example, “those who supported the Belgian secession or Catalonia’s separation from Spain aimed to obtain EU protection”. In the same way, “it is possible that Scottish pride will prevail over British identity due to Brexit”, Valent explained. Fidelity to national identity is hard to change. In fact, more than three-hundred years of being part of Great Britain has not tarnished Scottish pride. “The idea of Scotland leaving the UK is supported by a portion of the Scottish public opinion”. “However,” – Valent added “– such a scenario would only prevail if independence was to be followed by European membership, with its large, regulated and rich market”.


Photo by Agnese Stracquadanio, 2020, All Rights Reserved


The same applies for Northern Ireland. Here, “the geographic borders and the close relationship with the Republic of Ireland polarise the public debate even more” Valent said. Managing the complex relationship between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland has been a focal point of Brexit negotiations. The Good Friday Agreement of 1998, together with EU regulations, have framed this relationship for many years, and “without the EU, the Good Friday Agreement would inevitably be put under pressure”. If a crisis between England and Scotland occurs, Northern Ireland could also decide to take its own path. According to Chris, the combination of these dynamics and the seemingly unending austerity imposed by the current financial policies and the socio-economic shape the UK is in, will lead to a change in the next general election. “At that point, my hope is that [the government] will seek to reverse the trend” Chris said.

Besides economic and financial implications, the human aspect is what interests Gianna, an Italian who has resided in London for several years. “What has worried me about Brexit is the problem of immigration” – said Gianna – “I have never been a fan of immigration policies; I struggle to understand why we need borders at all”. She studied philosophy and ethics, and is currently employed by a non-profit organisation working with Italian migrants in the UK. If the British government does not ask for an extension of the transition period before 30th June, “freedom of movement from the EU to the UK will become limited, and those who wish to enter the UK will have to meet certain criteria from 1st January 2021” she added. In Gianna’s words “Brexit represents the first step towards an era of national sovereignty and inward focus”. All this is simply against what the EU represents, “togetherness, communication, freedom of movement, mutual support” she said. Even acknowledging the problems that need to be fixed within such a multilateral body, the EU still embodies “the post-war attitude of choosing openness”. “What worries me more than what the relationship between the EU and the UK will be, actually is: Will there still be a EU?” Gianna said. And that is what worries pro-Europeans all.


Cover Photo by Agnese Stracquadanio, 2020, All Rights Reserved

How you doin’, Manchester?

Talking about terrorist attacks is not easy at the present moment, when everybody wants to respect the grief of the victims’ families and the privacy of the injured. However, I truly believe that there is a great need to report how the citizens of the countries hit by violence are currently reacting. On the 22nd of May 2017, 22-year-old British Muslim Salman Ramadan Abedi detonated a homemade bomb at the exit of the Manchester Arena in Manchester, England, at the end of a concert by American singer Ariana Grande. Twenty- three adults and one children were killed, Abedi included.

Bombing location map. (Credits: Wikipedia, Eugen Simion 14 – Base map from OpenStreetMap, CC BY-SA 2.0).

Manchester is a lively city. I had the pleasure to live there during the last winter, and what surprised me most of it was the extreme variety of cultures living together. For example, I was truly impressed by the huge sign indicating the Gay Village in the city centre, something that couldn’t happen without issues in my hometown Bergamo, close to Milan.

Gay Village in the city centre of Manchester. Credits: Francesca Gabbiadini

During my stay, I attended an English course at a private school in the city centre, situated about 7 miles from the Manchester Arena. Immediately after the attack, I contacted Paul Ames, a 49-year-old British teacher who works at the school I attended, to understand better how Manchester is doing. Paul has lived in the Middle East for 6 years and worked there as an English teacher, discovering himself and facing the challenge of living immersed in another culture. Paul is originally from Manchester and currently lives approximately 10 miles from where the attack took place. When the terrorist attack happened, Paul was in Italy, on a holiday in Venice. For that reason, he found out about the attack on the morning after, when he checked the news on his mobile: «At the beginning, I felt a mix of shock and sadness. Then, I became very angry imaging all the suffering this attack was causing».

This is the first attack to hit the city after the powerful truck bomb which exploded in central Manchester on June 1996. At the time, it was the biggest bomb to have been detonated in Britain since the Second World War. It caused widespread damage and injured 200 people, but there weren’t any deaths. Despite the surveillance the city is under and the fact that Paul didn’t expect the attack, he adds that «however, it was not a big surprise since it felt like it was just a matter of time until a terrorist attack took place».

Rushholme, the Arabic neighborough where I used to live during my stay in Manchester. Credits: Francesca Gabbiadini.

Manchester is a lively place, I have already told you this. Anger is not the feeling that is currently running in the streets of the city. The citizens reacted with empathy and answered the terrorist act by flooding the places surrounding the Arena with flowers, poems, drawings and balloons. On the 4th of June, Ariana Grande came back to Manchester as hosted a benefit concert entitled “One Love Manchester” at Old Trafford Cricket Ground, which was broadcast live on television, radio and social media. The benefit concert and associated Red Cross fund raised £10 million for the victims of the attack.

Paul doesn’t notice any difference in his daily life after the bomb attack and he doesn’t have any desire to move to another place. He maintains that Muslim communities and the Muslim neighbourhood Rusholme didn’t receive a different treatment from the citizens or the police. Finally, I asked Paul a question about Europe and whether in his opinion these attacks are somehow threatening the concept of a united Europe: «The attacks may threaten a united Europe but I don’t think that is the intention of daesh. Unless Europe and its leaders wake up, it will sleepwalk itself into disaster in the next 20-30 years».

Floral tributes to the victims of the attack in St Ann’s Square in Manchester City centre (Credits: Wikipedia, Tomasz “odder” Kozlowski – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0).

Konrad is a 23-years-old Polish man who attended my same course at the private school where Paul is currently teaching. Having moved from Poland to the UK, Konrad is currently working in London in order to save some money to attend an acting course in France’s capital in the future. I contacted him in order to understand better what moving across Europe feels like: «When the terrorist attack happened I was in Sevenoaks, near London, training to become a Personal Assistant for disabled people. I found out about it from my colleague… I was totally in shock; it’s hard to express all the sadness, sympathy as well as grievance caused by this security fail». He explains to me that he won’t stop travelling around Europe, or change his daily life just because terrorist attacks can happen everywhere: «Actually, I am thinking more about what kind of things I should have on in case a terrorist attack should happen [where I am], and if there are any things that could be useful to know».

Konrad has a positive attitude towards the European Union: «How do I see Europe? I see EU as a safe place to live in and welcoming people from around the world. We can make changes together».

Cover Picture: Manchester City centre. Credits: Francesca Gabbiadini

Shrinking Britain: a migrant’s view on the EU referendum

When I first moved to London it felt like my life had suddenly shrank. All the things that had been important to me until then pulled back to the background as I navigated my way through the challenges of adjusting to a new life. First came the awkwardness of not being able to communicate properly in English: the despair of trying to rent a room with a letting agent who would not speak slower irrespectively of how many times I asked her to, please. Then the frustration of booking an appointment for a National Insurance Number, mitigated only by the patience of the call handler who repeated her words over and over for me, a newcomer startled by her inscrutable inflection which I later learnt being a thick northern accent. Insecurity followed suit, felt under the scrutiny of the bank employee who let me open an account only after I had assured him beyond doubt that I would start a full-time job the following week, finally leaving ground to the overwhelming disorientation that pervaded me throughout the next months, as I tried to figure out how everything worked – from public transport to the subtleties of social interaction.

I was not new to this kind of experience: my family moved to Italy in 1992 to escape war in Yugoslavia, and I remember clearly how my parents struggled to find work and a landlord who would trust them enough to rent to them. I remember how their lives, too, seemed to shrink for years, as they battled the unbearable slowness of Italian bureaucracy and adjusted to the constant feeling of disenfranchisement and isolation guaranteed by life as a migrant in a small Italian town better known for its right-wing political views. I still remember vividly being observed and evaluated by the town’s inhabitants when my parents and their friends tried to recreate some sense of homeliness by drinking coffee after coffee (as it is custom in the Balkans) at the cafe in the town centre, talking and laughing loudly in their mother tongue. I also remember being excluded from the local children’s games because I didn’t know their rules and they didn’t have the patience to teach me. To this day, I am painfully aware of how many Italian uses are still unknown to my family and me despite having lived there for most of our lives, an incompleteness that testifies to the process through which we became Italian, not through the privilege of inherited customs but through the bumpiness of daily trial and error.

Photo by Pete Linforth / PIxabay
Photo by Pete Linforth / Pixabay

So, if you ask me, the initial experience of migration is best described as the feeling of your life narrowing, as your daily experience is reduced to a limited set of practical issues and uncomfortable feelings. But just like had happened to my parents in Italy, the process gradually reversed, and I eventually got to a stage where the full range of life’s experiences and feelings was available to me again. Today my life is richer thanks to my time in this country, and I can see that the initial shrinking I experienced was part of a process that eventually enabled me to look at the world through a wider, more complete perspective. I completed a Master degree in London, worked jobs in hospitality, academia and the charity sector, I got to know people from all over the world and made experiences that pushed me to reconsider my views and values. I came to appreciate the vastness of this city and the diversity of its inhabitants and became proud to be part of a society that values plurality and tolerance. Heck, I even learnt to understand northern accents.

If I was able to enjoy the challenges and rewards of life in this country, it was thanks to the privilege of European citizenship. If, as a child, I could participate to exchange programs that took me to England and Finland, it was thanks to projects sponsored by the EU to foster the movement of young people across its member states. I, too, see project Europe as limited and in need of change, but I hoped that over time we would see Europe improve and loosen its existing borders, rather than implode as new ones emerged internally. For all these reasons, when the result of the EU referendum was announced on the morning of the 24th, I felt truly devastated and could not shake off the feeling that the tide had turned in a direction ridden with dangers. Regardless of the long-term consequences that the decision to leave the EU will have on the UK, I can’t help but feeling that through this vote the British people have chosen to willingly narrow their lives. Within the country, there are many reasons to worry: job security may be jeopardised even more, Brits could loose their right to travel, work and live in Europe without visas, EU fundings to charities and research may be lost and there are concerns as to what will happen to human rights and worker’s rights once the protections afforded by the EU are taken away.

Photo by Rohan Reddy / Pixabay

Nobody knows for sure what will happen once article 50 has been invoked and the negotiations have taken place; it may even be the case that the common market and the free movement of people will be, after all, maintained. But the problem is more fundamental: everyone who lives in this country knows that immigration has been the real issues at stake, and that the UK’s attitude towards diversity has been completely redefined throughout the referendum campaigns. The shock on my British friends’ and colleagues’ faces as they struggle to make sense of how this could happen testifies to the reluctance to accept that the values their country has long stood for have been so blatantly sidestepped, when not deliberately trashed, in the run up to the vote by both sides of the political debate. I listen and empathise as they, in what is probably a first for Britain, contemplate the possibility of their lives shrinking, through no fault of their own.

If we don’t learn the lessons of history, we are doomed to repeat them, they say. My friend’s shock reminds me inevitably of that of my parent’s generation when Yugoslavia started to fall apart: that the principles of cohabitation and diversity could be so readily abandoned in favour of nationalistic interests was for many Yugoslavs simply beyond comprehension, just as it seems to be for many Brits today. Europe is not perfect, just as Yugoslavia was not, but it seems to me that membership to a larger, supranational entity must entail a willingness to show patience to each other as we negotiate the rules of the game, accepting the bumpiness of the process that leads to the creation of a sense of belonging and community, imperfect but shared. As reports of racial abuse in the UK increase and the far-right across the continent is emboldened by the referendum result, I fear that Britain and Europe may be shrinking into smaller, more limited, versions of themselves. Watching the UK migrate away from Europe, I hold onto the hope that this process may reverse sometime soon.

Cover photo by Jamie Street / Unsplash

The impact of Brexit

The UK, with its strong economy, excellent education standards and attractive multicultural society, has been a popular destination for migrants from all over the world for decades. Immigrants now account for 12%, 7.8 million, of the UK’s population. Of these, 2.4 million are from Europe.

People move to this country for many reasons – some are fulfilling the dream of a lifetime (like myself), some are escaping hardships in their own country, whilst others simply have to to leave their family and friends because there are few jobs where they were born.

The UK has been welcoming migrants and absorbing parts of their cultures through the years, making it a great cosmopolitan place to live. I tasted my first pad thai, tikka masala, red pesto and Halloumi in London. I learnt about Diwali in Bournemouth and find more and more Italian products in the supermarkets every month – Barilla pasta sauces, limonata Sanpellegrino and Nduja.
Given the increasing influence Europe has on Britons’ daily lives, you’d expect to see a feeling of increasing unity with Europe. Yet, you’ll often hear Brits referring to Europe as a foreign entity; nothing to do with the UK.brexit__tjeerd_royaardsThis mentality is long established; it goes back to at least WW2 and is certainly still evident in the mindset and politics of the UK today. Factions in the ruling Tory party are determined for the Britain to exit the EU (Brexit).

Prime Minister David Cameron and the Tory leaders realise how detrimental leaving the EU would be, so they are determined to renegotiate changes to the UK’s membership and are campaigning to stay in the EU.

However, euro skeptics are doubtful of the effectiveness of this renegotiation. The demands have a huge focus on the freedom of movement, as the ruling right wing want to reduce the flow of migrants, especially unskilled workers, moving to the UK.brexit3There will be a referendum before the end of 2017 to allow Britons to decide whether to leave or not, no matter how Cameron’s renegotiations go. Groups for and against Brexit are already campaigning. Leave EU and Campaign For An Independent Britain are making their voices heard loud and clear.

The right wing press in Britain paints a picture of unskilled foreigners moving to the UK just to claim jobseeker’s allowance. However, only 2% of people claiming benefits are from the EU. Moreover, Brexit wouldn’t affect foreigners or unskilled workers only – 2 million Britons currently live on the continent. In 2014 alone, 307,000 British people relocated abroad to countries such as Australia, Germany and Spain looking for some sunshine, a bit of adventure or a cheaper house.

Additionally, many European countries complain about brain drain as a lot of their brightest engineers, nurses and graduates leave the continent to live in the UK. Myself and many other Europeans I know are contributing to the country’s economy with our marketing, software development, journalism and web design skills. We never claimed benefits, even when we found ourselves without a job for 6 months after graduating from a British university.

The proposed reforms would essentially breach the freedom of movement, which is right at the core of the EU principles. They would restrict easy border crossing for everyone – unskilled workers, bright talent and Britons wishing to move abroad alike. Have the people in favour of Brexit thought about that? Have they thought about the impact it would have on the lives of millions of people and their families?

We still don’t know what the practical consequences will be for Europeans already living and working in the UK. The uncertainty and fear have led to more and more people living in the UK applying for British citizenship.

I’m planning to do it myself if necessary, as a desperate move to stay in the country. While a British citizenship costs a minimum of £1,000, my life is here now, after studying and working in the UK for more than five years.

I live with my boyfriend and I can’t imagine moving back to my hometown. I have chosen this life and I won’t allow anyone to take it from me.  I just hope that the British people show an open-minded view of the world, not a closed off island mentality, by voting to stay in Europe.



Name and Surname: Raky KONE

Age: 21

Country: France

Nationality: French

City: Toulouse





1. Which is the form of government ruling in your country?

Presidential Republic with a semi-presidential system.


2. Do you believe corruption exists in your country? How much do you think it influences political life and your private life?

Of course I think it exists, as everywhere. I just think it is less evident than elsewhere, so that it doesn’t directly influence our everyday life or the political life.



3. Do you consider yourself European? [For non-European people: could you explain why you chose Europe?]

I consider myself French, and of course France is part of the European Continent and Union. That’s why I am supposed to consider myself a European citizen… Actually I can’t really see why I should do that, because being a European citizen would just be the same as being a world citizen. In effect, as a jurist I see citizenship as sharing common culture and language, but Europeans DO NOT share them. So, for me being European is just the consequence of political agreements among European countries, leading to some economical or political advantages. But I don’t feel European.






1. Which is your national language? Do dialects exist in your country? If they do, are they used/known by young people?

French is my national language. Some dialects still exist in France but are not really spoken anymore. Recently movements arose in order to promote them, through their reintroduction as taught subjects in schools or used for signage and public trasportation in cities as a part of their cultural heritage. However they’re not spoken anymore.



2. Who do you believe to be the cultural icon of your Country?

I don’t know.


3. Are you able to name a person that you consider symbolic for European culture? [For non-European people: do you perceive the existence of a “European culture”?]

The Beatles ?



Elena from Moldova

Name and Surname:  Elena Talpa

Age: 24

Country: Moldova (living in Italy since 2003)

Nationality: Moldavian

City: Chisinau



  1. Which is the form of government ruling in your country?

Parliamentary Republic.


  1. Do you believe corruption exists in your country? How much do you think it influences political life and your private life?

Yes, corruption is still pretty widespread. Almost everything is based on favoritism and bribe. It is changing but too slowly.

It pervades all the working environments, having a negative influence even on one’s personal and social life. If you distrust institutions (economic, political, academic…) you keep building your life through “relationships” and money  and not through real studying and working hard, lowering overall society’s well being .


  1. Do you consider yourself European? [For non-European people: could you explain why you chose Europe?]

Yes, I do. Moldova is not part of European Union (yet ;)) but it is still part of Europe as a continent.




  1. Which is your national language? Do dialects exist in your country? If they do, are they used/known by young people?

Romanian. Moldavian can be considered as a dialect, as it is a mix of Romanian and Russian. Someone considers it as an independent language but fortunately the official language is still considered Romanian, at least in the Declaration of Independence. Young people tend to speak “Moldavian” or Russian.


  1. Who do you consider to be the cultural icon of your country? (io la metterei un po così: Who do you considered to be the cultural icon of your country)

Mihai  Eminescu, writer and poet, that lived in the XIX century. He is considered to be the “father of the Romanian literature”.


  1. Are you able to name a person that you consider symbolic for European culture? [For non-European people: do you perceive the existence of a European culture?]

 I would say Jean Monnet, even if he was a politician and not a cultural  personality. I see him as one of the main protagonists that has had a big impact on the European belonging development and the consequent cultural development. I’m not sure whether we’ve already had real European cultural icons; national icons still have a strong presence, but I think that it is also too soon to say that. EU still needs time and only history will tell us.


Name and Surname: Andrei Loghin

Age: 25

Country: Hungary

Nationality: Romanian

City: Budapest


  1. Which is the form of government ruling in your country?

First of all, I would like to mention that I think of Romania as my country, although I am living in Hungary at the moment. The form of government is semi-presidential republic.


  1. Do you belive corruption exist in your country? How much do you think it influences political life and your private life?

It exists, as it does in all countries to different extents. I wouldn’t say corruption is rampant – maybe not to the level that it is in African countries let’s say, but Romania is not known as a corruption-free country. I can imagine political life is greatly affected by corruption. As for my private life, I think the effect is minimal, or unknown by the public in general at least.


  1. Do you considere yourself European? [For non-European people: could you explain why you chose Europe?]

I do. I share the mindset of most Europeans, I believe. We love our diversity and sense of belonging, while holding on to our own uniqueness, that of each separate nation. We love Europe as a whole, although we sometimes hate on each other as different peoples. Nevertheless, it’s togetherness and diversity that keep us going as Europeans.



  1. Which is your national language? Do dialects exist in your country? If they do, are they used/known by young people?

Romanian. There are very few regional dialects, born out of geographical separation and mixture with other cultures. Young people speak in dialects too, just like most people who love in those regions.


  1. Who do you consider to be the cultural icon of your country?

This is a tough one. I think, for better or for worse, that we can be proud to call Dracula our own. The real historical figure, Vlad Tepes, I think was even more interesting than the fictional character based on him.


  1. Are you able to name a person that you consider symbolic for European culture? [For non-Europena people: do you perceive the existence of a “European culture”?]

Oh, wow. This is an even tougher question. I don’t generally think of ONE single European culture, as a whole, but I guess the first people that pop into my mind are da Vinci, Beethoven, and the like. Although I think most outsiders would think of Angela Merkel or Conchita Wurst nowadays first.



Name and Surname: Olivier de La Brosse

Age: 27

Country: France

Nationality: French

City: Aix-en-Provence




  1. Which is the form of government ruling in your Country?

My country is a republic where the president has a lot of power because he’s elected directly by the citizens (Presidential Republic).


  1. Do you believe corruption exists in your country? How much do you think it influences political life and your private life?

Corruption is quite widespread within French political élite, such as among entrepreneurs. This is why French people don’t really believe in politics. It’s hard for us to trust their words because we know that they are capable to lie. Nevertheless, when we look at other countries we consider France not to be a very corrupted country thanks to the effective control upon our political system.


  1. Do you consider yourself European? [For non-European people: could you explain why you chose Europe?]

I consider myself European because I’m French but I’m also partly Hungarian and Italian. I speak three European languages apart from French and I’m well aware of the fact that the culture of my country is deeply related to European culture and influence. I also have friends and family all over Europe.





  1. Which is your national language? Do dialects exist in your country? If they do, are they used/known by young people?

My national language is French. There are dialects in my country, students at school study Basque and Breton. I think that Occitan isn’t used anymore and only linguists considers it nowadays.


  1. Who do you believe to be the cultural icon of your country?

There are many cultural icons in France. I strongly believe that Georges Brassens is the most appreciated cultural personality by every generation.


  1. Are you able to name a person that you consider symbolic for European culture? [For non-European people: do you perceive the existence of a “European culture”?]


Reg. Tribunale di Bergamo n. 2 del 8-03-2016
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